He allied himself with the defeated Rajput rulers, and rather than demanding a high “tribute tax” and leaving them to rule their territories unsupervised, he created a system of central government, integrating them into his administration. [122] The blinding was only partially successful and the prince's followers planned to smuggle him out of the country to safety with the Mughals whose aid they would use to overthrow Abbas and install Mohammed on the throne. The Armenians had already established trade networks that allowed Abbas to strengthen Iran's economy. "[126] In Michael Axworthy's view, Abbas "was a talented administrator and military leader, and a ruthless autocrat. [77] Now Iranian rule was fully restored over eastern Georgia. This demeaning treaty even ceded the previous capital of Tabriz to the Ottomans.[27][28][29]. Saakadze then defected to the Georgians, and led a new rebellion which succeeded in throwing the Persians out of Kartli and Kakheti while crowning Teimuraz as king of both territories. [49][77] Raised up at the court in Isfahan and a Muslim, he was perceived as fully loyal to the Shah. The new army consisted of 10,000 to 15,000 cavalry or squires (conscripted Caucasian ghulams) armed with muskets and other weapons (then the largest cavalry in the world[54]), a corps of musketeers, or tufangchiyan,[31] (12,000 strong) and a corp of artillery, called tupchiyan[31] (also 12,000 strong). [77], Even then, Saakadze and Teimuraz launched another rebellion in 1626, and were effective in clearing Iranian forces from most of the region. This became known as the “Infallibility Decree,” and it furthered Akbar’s ability to create an interreligious and multicultural state. They not only disagreed with this view of Islam, they didn't want the Umayyads to have so much political power. In 1606, Abbas had appointed these Georgians onto the thrones of Safavid vassals Kartli and Kakheti, at the behest of Kartlian nobles and Teimuraz's mother Ketevan; both seemed like malleable youths. Most notably, Khan won control of northern India from the Afghans and successfully led the army against the Hindu king Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat.

Tahmasp I, the second Safavid shah, had realised, by looking at his own empire and that of the neighbouring Ottomans, that he faced ongoing threats from dangerous rival factions and internal family rivalries that were a threat to him as the head of state. Whether you’re studying times tables or applying to college, Classroom has the answers. [71] Abbas refused and pretended he was ready to set fire to Ardabil and retreat further inland rather than face the Ottoman army. Once they were settled, he allowed them considerable freedom and encouraged them to continue in their silk trade. Both monarchs were able to create a compelling sense of a distinctive national identity, but unlike Elizabeth's England, Shah Abbas's Iran accommodated other faiths, notably the Christian Armenians. To counterbalance their power and as a decisive answer to this problem, Abbas turned to the newly introduced members of Iranian society (an initiative put in place by Shah Tahmasp I) the ghulams (a word literally meaning "slaves"). Abbas frequently demanded that nobles convert to Islam, and had Ketevan the Martyr tortured to death when she refused.

Egypt and other north African countries, as well as the caliphate in southern Spain, asserted their independence from the Abbasids. [16][17] He rode to the Safavid capital Qazvin with the young prince and pronounced him king on 16 October 1587. As Roger Savory writes, "Not since the development of Baghdad in the eighth century A.D. by the Caliph al-Mansur had there been such a comprehensive example of town-planning in the Islamic world, and the scope and layout of the city centre clearly reflect its status as the capital of an empire. [35] These slaves would serve a similar role in their formation, implementation and use to the janissaries of the neighbouring Ottoman Empire. [69] In the Caucasus, during the war Abbas also managed to capture what is now Kabardino-Balkaria.

[8], In 1578, Abbas' father became Shah of Iran. A bloody battle ensued on 9 August 1598, in the course of which the Uzbek khan was wounded and his troops retreated (the khan was murdered by his own men during the retreat).
A Circassian named Behbud Beg executed the Shah's orders and the prince was murdered in a hammam in the city of Resht.

[45] Beyond military conciliation, he appealed to the Rajput people by ruling in a spirit of cooperation and tolerance. [23] Meanwhile, the Uzbeks continued their conquest of Khorasan. Akbar is known for ushering in the Mughal style of architecture, which combined elements of Islamic, Persian and Hindu design, and sponsored some of the best and brightest minds of the era—including poets, musicians, artists, philosophers and engineers—in his courts at Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. The Ottomans had seized vast territories in the west and the north-west (including the major city of Tabriz) and the Uzbeks had overrun half of Khorasan in the north-east. Her articles have appeared in the "Palm Beach Times" and she is the author of numerous books published by Hamlyn U.K., including "Healing Reiki" and "Pilates System." "[77], The Cambridge History of Iran rejects the view that the death of Abbas marked the beginning of the decline of the Safavid dynasty as Iran continued to prosper throughout the 17th century, but blames him for the poor statesmanship of the later Safavid shahs: "The elimination of royal princes, whether by blinding or immuring them in the harem, their exclusion from the affairs of state and from contact with the leading aristocracy of the empire and the generals, all the abuses of the princes' education, which were nothing new but which became the normal practice with Abbas at the court of Isfahan, effectively put a stop to the training of competent successors, that is to say, efficient princes prepared to meet the demands of ruling as kings. Indira Gandhi was India's third prime minister, serving from 1966 until 1984, when her life ended in assassination. [104] Many were transferred to New Julfa, a town the shah had built for the Armenians primarily meant for these Armenians from Jugha ("Old Julfa"), near his capital Isfahan.
The confusion sprouts from the fact that two distinctly different, but similar, occurrences both happened in the month of October, but in different years. [115], The shah had set great store on an alliance with Spain, the chief opponent of the Ottomans in Europe. After a particularly arrogant series of demands from the Ottoman ambassador, the Shah had him seized, had his beard shaved and sent it to his master, the sultan, in Constantinople. Abbas' mother soon came to dominate the government, but she had little time for Abbas, preferring to promote the interests of his elder brother Hamza. [36] Their arrival in such large numbers led to the formation of a new grouping in Iranian society solely composed of ethnic Caucasians. When Luarsab refused, he was thrown in prison. [clarification needed] Sources report him spending much of his time among them, personally visiting bazaars and other public places in Isfahan. Abbas I (1571-1629), called "the Great," was a shah of Persia, the fifth king of the Safavid dynasty. From now on, government officials collected the taxes and remitted them directly to the royal treasury. [56] Ruthless discipline was enforced and looting was severely punished. He strengthened the monarchy by establishing a standing army and succeeded in expelling the Ottomans and Uzbeks from Persian soil.

Several years of peace followed as the Ottomans carefully planned their response. Most were eventually replaced by ghulams, whose loyalty was to the shah. In 1618, an Ottoman army of 100,000 led by the grand vizier, invaded and easily seized Tabriz. The Persian victory was recognised in the Treaty of Nasuh Pasha in 1612, effectively granting them back suzerainty over most of the Caucasus. In addition to encouraging the spread of Islam, the Abbasid rulers promoted intellectual developments in Islamic culture. But the plot was betrayed, the prince's followers were executed and the prince himself imprisoned in the fortress of Alamut where he would later be murdered by Abbas' successor, Shah Safi. [6][nb 1] When Abbas was four, Tahmasp sent Abbas' father to stay in Shiraz where the climate was better for his fragile health. He brought Persia once again to the zenith of power and influence politically, economically, and culturally.

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